Monday, 10 June 2013

According Hasibuan (2007) there are seven employee job satisfactions is influenced by the following factors:
1.     Logrolling fair and decent.
2.     The exact placement in accordance with the membership.
3.     Weight trivial job.
4.     Atmosphere and work environment.
5.     Tools that support the execution of the work.
6.     Leadership attitude in leadership.
7.     Monotonous nature of the job or not.

Employee job satisfaction is greatly influenced by the attitude of the leadership in the leadership. Participation leadership job satisfaction for employees, because employees actively participate in giving its opinion to determine the wisdom of the enterprise. Authoritarian leadership resulted in employee job dissatisfaction. Employee job satisfaction is a key driver of job morale, discipline and work performance of employees in supporting the realization of the purpose of the enterprise. According to Robbins and Judge (2009) there are 21 factors relating to job satisfaction, namely autonomy and independence, career benefit, opportunity to advance, career development opportunities, compensation/salary, communication between employees and management, job contributes to organizational goals, feeling secure in work environment, flexibility to balance life and work issues, employment security, job specific training, management recognition of employee performance, jobs, networking, opportunity to use the ability or expertise, organizational commitment to expansion, the company's overall culture, relationships among employees, relationship with supervisor, job, jobs uniformity.
Luthans (2005), states that there are a number of factors that influence job satisfaction. The key things to remember the most important dimensions namely salary, job, promotion, supervision, group work and working conditions. Furthermore Nelson and Quick (2006) revealed that job satisfaction influenced five specific dimensions of the work that is payroll, job, promotion opportunities, supervision and co-workers.
Byars and Rue (2005), states that the reward system of the organization often has a significant impact on employees' job satisfaction level. For example if each person received a 5 percent salary increase is difficult to get reward solutions. However, if the increase is linked directly to performance pay, an employee who receives a huge salary increase will be more likely to experience feelings of completion and fulfilment. There are five main components of job satisfaction, namely:
1.     Attitudes towards work groups
2.     General conditions of employment
3.     Attitudes towards enterprise
4.     Economic gains
5.     Attitudes toward management.

Other components include a condition of mind employees about the job itself and life in general. An employee attitude towards work may be positive or negative. Health, age, level of aspiration, social status, social and political events may affect job satisfaction.
According to Kreitner and Kinicki (2005), there are five factors that can influence the onset of satisfaction, namely:
1.     Need fulfilment. These models propose that determine satisfaction levels of job characteristics that allow the individual opportunity to meet his needs.
2.     Discrepancies. This model states that satisfaction is a result of expectations. Fulfilling the expectations reflected differences between what is expected and obtained individual from employment. When hope is greater than what is accepted, people will not be satisfied. Instead predicted individual will be satisfied when they receive benefits above expectations.
3.     Value against it. The idea value against it is that the feed satisfaction results from the perception of job gives significant value individual work.
4.     Equity. In this model meant that feed satisfaction function of how individuals are treated fairly in the workplace. Satisfaction is the result of the perception that the comparison between the work and the relative inputs more profitable compared to the comparison between the outputs and enter other occupations.
5.     Dispositional/genetic components. Some colleagues or friends seemed satisfied with the range of variation of the work, while others seem not satisfied. This model is based on the belief that job satisfaction is a function of the nature of some personal and genetic factors. Model implies are vide only difference Indies have significant meaning to explain the characteristics of job satisfaction as any work environment.
In management, the functions of the organization, especially in the case of monitoring, organizations must monitor their employee’s attitudes, and relationship to behavior. Does the employee’s satisfaction or dissatisfaction with influence at the workplace?  In organizations, the attitude is very important for component behavior. In general, the study concluded that individuals seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior.
A person can have thousands of attitudes, attitude-filled work positive or negative evaluation owned by employees about aspects of their jobs, there are three attitudes that is, job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. A person with a high level of job satisfaction have positive feelings about the job, while a person who is not satisfied have negative feelings about the job. Job involvement, which measures the level reached in favor of individual psychologically important to them and consider the achievable level of performance as a form of self-esteem. Employees who have a high level of employee participation are very favorable and really care about the field of work they do. Level job involvement and giving a high competence really relating organizational citizenship and job performance. High job involvement means in favor of an individual in a particular job, while a level higher Organizational commitment means that the recruiting organization in favor of the individual.
Rating an employee about how he feels satisfied or dissatisfied with the job is a complicated presentation of a number of elements of different jobs. Various independent studies, held between U.S. workers for the last 30 years, in general show that the majority of employees are satisfied with their job. Despite the wide range the performance, but more and more individuals reported that they were satisfied than dissatisfied. What causes job satisfaction? In terms of job satisfaction (work itself, pay, promotion is, supervision, and coworkers), enjoy the work itself almost always is most closely related in terms of the high level of job satisfaction overall. In other words, most individuals prefer a challenging work and the spirit of the work of predictable and routine.
According to Herzberg (1959), a characteristic behavior of satisfied workers are those who have high motivation to work, they are happy in doing his job, while its less satisfied employees are those who leave the workplace lazy and unmotivated with his job. The employee who always having a bad behaviour, lazy, that will certainly be a problem for enterprise. They usually will have a highest level for absenteeism, work delays, and other breaches of discipline. Otherwise the behaviours of satisfied employees are more profitable for the company. Factors affecting job satisfaction can be found by looking at a few things that can cause and encourage job satisfaction, namely:
1.     Psychology factor, a factor relating to psychiatric professionals covering interest, Security in work, attitude towards work, talent and skills.
2.     Social factors, the factors relating to good social interaction among senior professionals and employees with different types of employment.
3.     Physical factors, the factors relating to the physical condition of the work environment and employee physical conditions, including type of employment, organization of time and rest, work equipment, the state space, temperature, lighting, air exchange, employees' health condition, age and so on.
4.     Financials factor, a factor relating to the security and well-being of employees and substantially covering systems of wages, social security, all sorts of benefits, facilities provided promotion and so on.
A meta-analysis study performed by AJ Kinicki, et al (2000) covers 9 results analysis involving 2237 workers have revealed a positive and significant relationship between motivation and job satisfaction. Because satisfaction with supervision was significantly correlated with motivation, the manager suggested considering how their behaviours affect job satisfaction. The manager potentially increases the motivation of employees through a range of efforts to increase job satisfaction. Involvement in work is the involvement of individuals with a role in his work. A meta-analysis involving 27,925 respondents from 87 different studies show that involvement in work has relevance to job satisfaction (S, P, Brown, 1996).
Implication on work dissatisfaction can be seen like this. In an organizational job dissatisfaction can manifest in various ways, Robins and Judge (2009) explains that there are four different responses to each other in two dimensions that are constructive/destructive and active/passive, with the following explanation:
1.     Exit, dissatisfaction shown by the behaviour directed at leaving the organization, including looking for a new position or resign.
2.     Voice, dissatisfaction shown by the active and constructive efforts to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and various forms of alliance activity.
3.     Loyalty, indicated dissatisfaction passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve by, the terms to speak for the organization before external criticism and trusting the organization and management to do the right thing.
4.     Neglect, dissatisfaction shown by the action of passively letting the situation worsen, including chronic absenteeism or tardiness in, reduced effort, and increased error rate.

Other aspects that are found in job satisfaction:
1.     Work mentally challenged. Most employees appreciate the jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offers tasks, freedom and feedback on how well they perform. These characteristics make the work mentally challenged. Too less challenging jobs created boredom, but too much challenge creates frustration and feelings of failure. In such cases the challenge is, most employees will experience pleasure and satisfactions are.
2.     Rewards fast. The employees want a pay system and promotion policy that they define as fair, and in line with their expectations. Good wages based on job demands, individual skill level, and employment of a community standard, likely to be produced satisfaction. Not everyone is chasing money. Many people are willing to accept smaller good money to work in a more desirable location or in a less demanding job or have greater discretion in their work and work hours. But the key to satisfaction wage afraid that not the absolute amount paid; most important is the perception of justice. Was similar employee seeking promotion policy and practice more, and increased social status. Therefore individuals who perceive that promotion decisions are made in a fair (fair and just) most likely will experience satisfaction from their work.
3.     Working conditions that support. Employees care about good work environment for personal convenience or to facilitate his work. These studies display that employees prefer physical surroundings that are not dangerous or inconvenient. Temperature (temperature), light, noise, and other environmental factors should not extreme (too much or too little).
4.     Colleague who supports. People get more than just an exchange or a substantial performance of the work. For most employees, works also fill the need for social services. Therefore when having a friendly and co-workers can create a pleasing increase job satisfaction. But the superior behaviour is also key determinants of satisfaction.
5.     Personality suitability to work. In fact the type of personality congruence (congruent) with the job for which they should get that they have the right talent and ability to meet the demands of their job. Thus be more likely to succeed on the job, and because of this success, have a greater likelihood of achieving high satisfaction from their work.

When there is dissatisfaction in the work, the first thing that will happen to the employees is conflict. In general, conflicts are divided into four levels of intra-individual conflict, the conflict between the personnel, the conflict between the group and organizational conflict. Every conflict occurs due to problems encountered. There are various concepts used in explaining more about the issue of this conflict. Among them is the role conflict and role ambiguity occurs when an individual involved in two different situations for example a civil servant at the same time become a lecturer. Of course, conflicts can arise due to the occurrence of role confusion.
Employability conflict exists when there is a problem the solution to a problem that arises, poor physical environment and so on. Workload conflict arises as a result of an individual receives too much work and need to be resolved in a short period of time.
Conflicts also guarantee a worker typically occurs due to economic factors. In this case, each individual will experience a conflict of me for figuring out how to solve the problem. Next, the concept of conflict is also used in the work and family conflict. In this case, conflicts can occur when families do not understand the role of other family members if not get an explanation of the scope of work performed. Thus, the individuals involved should clarify the scope of work carried out so as not to create any conflict. The concept of the next conflict is a conflict of leadership in the organization. The conflict will arise from the employee behaviour. Concepts used in the stress just involve stress experienced by each individual. The stress that arises out of conflicts can occur within them. Stress that occurs within oneself will cause various negative effects such as emotional imbalance, loss of self-control, loss of ability to work and the next diet suffer negative implications on health. In addition, stress can cause future individuals who suffer from stress are destroyed. Thus, each individual must learn to control the problem.
According to Alcott (2007) leader who knows how to manage conflict in an organization is a characteristic of a successful leader. Conflict occurs when there is disagreement or non-belief in any case. For the employee, they should know the skill how to manage internal and external conflicts that are associated with organizational leadership. In the management of conflict between various approaches are recommended to collect, avoid combination, insist or to compromise where both parties benefit compared to other methods that result in one party feeling offended or disappointed. Therefore, conflict management need to ensure that the work environment in the organization and harmony and thus can contribute to the productivity of the organization.
It is believed that the conflict in the organization occurs because struggle and competition for resources, responsibilities dependent, because the status, barriers in communication and differences in values ​​and beliefs. In addition, not all conflict is bad because sometimes there is a conflict that can be profitable organization model in improving employee morale to achieve bonuses and rewards the good. Important aspects and elements in the functioning of an organization is communication. Communication effectiveness and organizational effectiveness are closely related and affect each other. In an organization, like a pulse that drives the communication management and employee relations functions. Among the problems faced by an organization is a problem of communication between management and subordinates. The causes of communication problems may occur because of the style of leadership or lack of communication skills.
Thus, two-way communication open type, clear and mutual trust will be able to influence an individual's degree of commitment to the organization. This is because when an individual receives positive feedback about the nature of work in the organization and performance with the consent of his superiors, the individual will have a higher degree of commitment to the job and organization. Increase the degree of commitment to this organization involves communication process from the top down to individual subordinates. In addition, individuals will also increase the degree of subordinate organizational commitment should clear information about their work.
Various definitions of communication were made by communication experts as Hoben, Berelson, Steiner, Miller, Gode and Ruesch. Between the definition of communication is often adopted by scholars and researchers of communication is by definition Hoben, Ruesch, Berelson and Steiber. Definition made by Ruesch (1975) is quite common. He stated that communication is a process that connects the isolated parts of the world. While Hoben (1954) noted the verbal communication is the exchange of an idea or opinion.
Berelson and Steiner (1964) define communication as "the process of transmitting information '. This definition does not see or consider the results of each communication whether successful or not. What is meant by organizational leadership? Some scholars define leadership communication as communication skills that move the group toward the achievement and well-being of the group. Organizations can also define as a body that contains the groups and individuals who work together to achieve certain goals. This means that the organization leadership can be defined as communication skills in a body that contains the groups or individuals to achieve organizational goals for the common good.
This problem should be viewed from the aspect of communication problems in leadership and leadership problems in communication. It is unfortunate if there is a leader who does not know the importance of effective communication and in turn ignore or be complacent when communicating. In an organization there are many workers or employees who come from different cultures and backgrounds. In this case, religion, culture, race, region different from each other requires a different form of communication when connected.
Leaders cannot assume that all workers are equal and should get the same treatment. It's true; the employer must be fair to employees but to emphasize the differences in backgrounds when communicating. From the aspect of gender alone is giving a clear picture of the need for a different method of communication. For extreme organizations like the armed forces and the police, in total communication method is very different from the communication among teachers and students in a school. Strong language and strict orders and delivered in a serious situation for the administration of an organization charged security. While the language of diplomacy, friendly and full delivery is required in a school or other private companies. It is highly inappropriate delivery of important instructions sheet using friendly language in a security organization. As such communication is very important, all parties should use the best possible communication is very necessary and communicated well, perfect, according to the audience, according to time and circumstances. Otherwise, communication is used will give a different meaning to the employee. If the communication channel is not suitable, the possibility of the message does not reach or do not fully live up to. This situation will turn chaotic if the employee continues to perform the task without a clear direction. This also forms the real problems of communication in organizational leadership.
According to Adair (2009) to achieve the objectives of the organization a leader should communicate with all relevant parties, if not the objective will not be done well without communication. Communication is very important in explaining the purpose, aim and objectives of the organization, but there are some errors or attitude of the chief or leader in delivering something to a subordinate staff or related parties such as the head could not understand and was not clear about the objectives presented. Head is also required to give the team or organizational members what to do and why, when, how, where and who will carry out a task. The important thing in giving instructions or tasks is to divide the objectives into smaller groups so that it would be clearer and more objective. This will facilitate the group's responsibilities.
Moreover, according to Adair (2009), asking for consent in determining the duties and responsibilities also play an important role in achieving organizational objectives. According to Manning and Curtis (2009), however, an effective method of communication is via two-way communication. It is believed that one-way communication can be a problem and a challenge for such people to be disobedient power to do something illegal; people will become more dependent on the head in making decisions and in turn can cause anger subordinate to the chief of staff.


Organizational commitment reflects how individuals identify themselves with the organization and tied to goals. A meta-analysis of 68 studies involving 35 282 individuals revealed the presence of a strong relationship between commitment and job satisfaction (Tett and Meyer, 1993). The manager recommended to increase job satisfaction in order to achieve a higher level of commitment. Further commitment could facilitate higher productivity realizations (Matheu and Zajac, 1990).

Here is the influence of job satisfaction with work absenteeism.
1.     On Productivity. People argue that productivity can be increased by increasing job satisfaction. Job satisfaction may result from productivity or otherwise. High productivity resulting from increased job satisfaction only if the workforce perceives that what has been achieved in accordance with any enterprise they receive (salary/wages) that are fair and reasonable and the work associated with superior performance. In other words that work performances show floor worker job satisfaction, because firms can learn from the employment aspects of the desired level of success.
2.     Absenteeism. According to Porter and Steers, absenteeism is more spontaneous and less capacity reflects job dissatisfaction. The lack of a relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism. Because there are two factors in the present behavior that is motivation to attend and ability to attend. Meanwhile, according to Wibowo (2007) between satisfaction and absenteeism/absence indicates a negative correlation. For example enterprises provide sick leave or time off work freely without the sanction or fine including the employees are very satisfied.
3.     Workers exit (Turnover). While stopped or out of a job has a huge economic consequence, then most likely related to job dissatisfaction. According to Robbins (1998), job dissatisfaction in employees can be expressed in many other ways such as by leaving the job, complain, rebel, steal items belonging to the enterprise/organization, avoiding some of their job responsibilities, and others.

According to Handoko (2001), job satisfaction is the emotional state of pleasant or unpleasant by any employee looked at their jobs. Job satisfaction reflects one's feelings towards their job. This saw the positive attitude of employees towards work and everything faced during work. Historically, officers get job satisfaction will perform well. The problem is there is high job satisfaction officer not be official high productivity. Many opinions suggested that job satisfaction is higher, mainly due to performance, not vice versa. Better job performance resulting higher appreciation. When appreciation is deemed fair and adequate, then the officer will be increased job satisfaction because they receive appropriate credit in proportion to their work performance.
Here is an empirical case study was conducted to reveal the relationship about satisfaction and job performance. Ibrahim, Sejini & Qassimi (2006) conducted a study on the relationship between self-assessment of performance and job satisfaction among public sector workers in the United Arab Emirates. The results showed there was no significant relationship between self-assessment of performance with overall job satisfaction. The same goes for "moderating variables" such as sex, marital status, length of service and position showed no significant relationship. However there is a significant relationship between self-assessment of job performance, citizenship, position on salaries and benefits, career development, and most importantly environment/working conditions.
Mohammad & Arif (2000) conducted a study on the relationship between organizational culture and work among Malaysian organizations. The study was conducted in seven private companies in Malaysia. The findings have shown there is a relationship between organizational culture with job involvement and organizational commitment. Relationship is positive and strong. This study is consistent with previous studies in which the role of organizational culture is to promote the positive work. The findings also show that there are several dimensions of organizational culture that promotes the effectiveness and productivity of labour is ultimately it allows the organization of competitive advantages competitive. By the culture of the organization, it needs to be monitored continuously so that it beliefs and values ​​shared by the members of the organization continue to evolve and eventually management practices can facilitate a conducive work culture.
Boon, Arumugam, Vellapan, Yin & Wai (2006) conducted a study / quantitative analysis of the relationship between organizational culture and employee job satisfaction in the health sector in Malaysia. The study was conducted on workers in four health organization in the state. The findings showed an employee perceptions of organizational culture variables are significant and positive relationship on job satisfaction of employees. This study proved the higher the level of employee awareness dimensions of organizational culture support, emphasis on rewarding innovation, performance oriented, stability and communication, the more positive reactions to employee satisfaction. Studies have also shown support are the dominant dimension between dimensions of organizational culture and has a strong relationship with employee satisfaction. This study supports previous findings by Lund (2003), Gray, Densten and Sarros (2003).
Lok & Crawford (2003) conducted a study on the influence of organizational culture and leadership style on job satisfaction and organizational commitment of managers of various industries in Hong Kong and Australia. The findings showed Australian managers have "Mean Scores" higher variable organizational culture to support innovation and job satisfaction and organizational commitment than managers from Hong Kong. For both samples, the variable innovation, support and leadership style to show consideration has a positive influence on job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
Rashid, Sambasivan & Johari (2002) conducted a study of the influence of corporate culture and organizational commitment on the financial performance of Malaysian companies. The findings also indicated the relationship between corporate cultures with organizational commitment. Relationship is significant and positive impact on employee job satisfaction. These findings are significant enough implications for human resource development and employee motivation. This study also proves corporate culture and an organizational commitment has an impact and influences the company's financial performance. This means that the kind of corporate culture and organizational commitment can be an important factor in determining the performance or achievements of the company.

In a measure of success, the most important indicator for each organization is scrutinized by customers. So, the sure answer is customer satisfaction (Customer Satisfaction). Customers satisfaction is the most frequently discussed issue in all organizations whether public or private sector. Organizations rely heavily on customers, if customers already do not believe anymore in the organization because of a bad outcome (quality of services and products that bad), then the organization will lose the trust of our customers because of bad impressions are formed. Satisfaction or dissatisfaction is a measure of an episode of something related to past service experience. Quality of service is an overall assessment of a service experience. The study found that the assessment of customer perceptions related to have an impact on customer satisfaction. So it is clear that the quality of customer service comes before pleasure In the context of consumer behaviour theory, defined as more satisfaction from the perspective of the customer experience itself after using a product or a service.
Satisfaction can also be defined as a condition in a person or group of people who have succeeded in getting something that is needed and desired. Customer satisfaction is also a story compatibility between needs and expectations. Customer satisfaction will result in long-term relationships of trust and on-going then was created the next customer loyalty. Satisfied customers will make repeat purchases and they will tell other users about their experience with the service. Satisfaction can be defined as: Level one's feelings after comparing the results of the performance of services as compared to hope she feels.
1.     result of below expectations = DESPAIR
2.     results conform to expectations = SATISFIED
3.     work beyond or above expectations = VERY SATISFIED

Why should measure customer satisfaction. After talking about customer satisfaction, good thinking also about the importance of making surveys on customer satisfaction. Why measurement should be implemented? To be sure, we do aim for customer satisfaction measurement is to improve quality, increase customer satisfaction, and increased profitability on average business loses 10% to 30% of customers every year without noticed. To figure they do not know where the missing client, when they lost and why they lost. The question of how profits and proceeds derived from them is also important to be scrutinized. The main purpose of most of the business undertaken is aimed at profit. Measure customer satisfaction and act appropriately may produce profit. While failure to render further reduce customer makes competition increase the size of their market.
Loss of customer satisfaction also leads to flee to competitors. Left by the customer organization will face a very big problem. Customer satisfaction levels is an important factor in developing a system of service provision to the needs of customers, minimize financing costs incurred and time (time) and requires treatment of the need to maximize the target. Research on customer satisfaction has been a lot done with a variety of approaches such as satisfaction with service quality, satisfaction with the service committee. Customer satisfaction is determined by various factors including: The decisive factor is the quality of service level the factors that cause the occurrence of non-fulfilment of conditions on customer expectations of service quality, which is often described as a model of service quality. There are five factors that influences the quality of service are:
1.     The difference between management perceptions of customer expectations about what customers want. Picture like this could happen in aviation industry, where industries leaders think that airline passengers departing just thinking timeliness, while passengers expect a friendly attitude from stewardess and airline employees.
2.     The difference between management's perceptions of service quality specifications. Management may be right to accept what the client desires, but management does not define specific working standards. For example: Management of food business (restaurant) may have fulfilled the desire of customers with the best set food menu, but management did not specify the manner of furnishing meal services specifications.
3.     Difference between service quality specifications given by way of service delivery. The server may be less well trained in how to feeding treatment, so no accurate way of delivering the requisite standard.
4.     The difference between the deliveries of external communications. In general, customer expectations often influenced by the statements made by the agent or representative of the company or advertising made. In this case if the brochure's with interesting company, but in reality it is not as described, then it can change customer expectations.
5.     The difference between the service received by service client had hoped for. These things can happen as a measure of performance of different quality of service expected by the customer, for example can be seen from an airplane passenger hope is to be able to enjoy the satisfaction very well before boarding the plane, or in the, during the flight and during the leave or down from when the plane reaches his destination. But what might be experienced by passengers could vastly different from what they expected. From what has been stated above that the customer always told and expect to be able to enjoy the services it uses in accordance with hopes satisfactorily. This is reflected by the quality level of the services produced by a company.
The company's success in maintaining or improving service quality in hospitality services produced is men or people who produce and deliver the service, the place where the services are processed, and the process of service provision itself. Thus, the role of the people who produce and deliver those services is of utmost importance.
There are internal barriers to customer satisfaction. Innumerable efforts achievement of customer satisfaction conducted by the organization. Starting from the handling process, quality improvement, increased services, reduced funding directed all try to give customer satisfaction. However, customer satisfaction cannot be achieved in whole or perfect. Studies find and identify the internal barriers include:
1.     Internal politics - Measurement of customer satisfaction to be part of "politicking" between departments or groups.
2.     The issue of take for granted - Providers assume that the issue of customer satisfaction is not a simple matter and is not important.
3.     Complacency-service providers believe that they know what customers think and believe they have and provide the best service.
4.     Resources and expertise to source issues and expertise in the field of customer service.
5.     Logistics-knowing the problem or exceeding customer and contact them.
6.     Cost Barriers have no financial provision allows service provided satisfactorily.

According Hasibuan (2007) Job satisfaction is a pleasant emotional attitude and loves his job. Job satisfaction employees should preferably be created moral work, dedication, love, and discipline of employees rose. This attitude was reflected in the work morale, discipline, and work performance. They also can enjoy job satisfaction on the job, off the job, and a combination of inside and outside work. Job satisfaction in a job is job satisfaction enjoyed in obtaining employment with praise the work, placement, treatment, equipment, and a good working environment atmosphere. Employees who prefer to enjoy job satisfaction in the job will be primarily employment of retribution despite the important.
Robbins and Judge (2009) define job satisfaction as positive feelings about the job as a result of evaluation characters work. Concurs with that, Noe, et al. all (2006), defines that job satisfaction as a pleasant feeling as a result of the perception that the job meets job values ​​are important. Further Kinicki and Kreitner (2005) define job satisfaction as an attitude or emotional response to various aspects of one's job. This definition gives the sense that job satisfaction is not a single concept. More than that one can be relatively satisfied with one aspect of the job and do not satisfied with one or various aspects. In a similar view, Nelson and Quick (2006) stated that job satisfaction is a positive emotional state and pleasant as a result of the job evaluation or work experience person.
There are many ways to measure job satisfaction of employees in organization/enterprises both large and small. Most do not, there are four ways that can be used to measure job satisfaction, is Rating Scale, Critical incidents, Interviews and Action Tendencies. First is Rating Scale. Approach that is often used to measure job satisfaction with Rating Scale among others: Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, Job Descriptive Index, and Porter Need Satisfaction Questionnaire. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) is a measuring instrument or device designed job satisfaction so take look at them in detail uncategorized elements in an element of satisfaction and dissatisfaction element. MSQ scales measuring various aspects of perceived job very rewarding, satisfying, cannot decide, unsatisfactory and highly unsatisfactory. Employees were asked to choose one alternative answers according to the condition of his employment. Job descriptive index is a measure of job satisfaction instrument developed by Kendall, and Hulin.
With this instrument can be widely known how employees' attitudes towards the components of the job. Measured variable is the work itself, pay, promotion opportunities, supervision and work partner. Questionnaire Porter Need Satisfaction is a measure of job satisfaction instruments used to measure managers' job satisfaction. Query more focused on themselves on certain issues and challenges faced by the managers. Critical Incidents widely introduced by Frederick Herzberg. He uses this technique in the study of the two-factor theory of motivation. In his research he is asking a question to our employees about what factors alone do not make them happy and satisfied. Interview to measure job satisfaction by using interviews conducted on the individual employee. This method is known to be deeply about how employees' attitudes towards various aspects of the work. From the measurement of three ways, using rating scale is the most frequently performed.
The definitions of consumer are general and it’s related between satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the results from the existence of differences between the consumer expectations. It began with the performance perceived by the consumer. From variety of consumer satisfaction definition that has been researched and defined by marketing experts, it can be concluded that consumer satisfaction is a behavioral response consumer after-purchase evaluation form for a good or service that feels (performance products) compared with consumer expectations. Consumer satisfaction is highly dependent on consumer perceptions and expectations of themselves. Factors influencing consumer perceptions and expectations when making a purchase of a good or service is a necessity and desire felt by the consumer at the time of purchase of a good or service, past experience when consuming the goods or services and the experience of friends who have consume the goods or services and advertising. In a competitive environment, indicators can indicate consumer satisfaction is what consumers will buy back and use the product at a time when that will come. As for some understanding of consumer satisfaction according to the researchers is as follows:
There are many ways to increase consumer satisfaction, but according to some Schnaars four main ways, namely:
1.     Building relationship with customer. Consumer satisfaction strategies are developed through good relations with the consumer in the long term so as to increase consumer loyalty. Closer relationships with consumers when combined with high quality products and fast service can be used to obtain competitive advantage.
2.     Superior customer services. Ideal of Service in Consumer
Strategy similar consumer satisfaction by providing a higher level of service than competitors. Firms that offer better services usually charge a higher price for their products. Enterprises that provide services to higher market share tend to have larger and growing faster than competitors that provide low treatment.
3.     Unconditional guarantee. Absolute warranty Guarantee the existence of another opportunity to create consumer satisfaction. Reduce the risk of warranty on consumer purchases and indirect state that the product is high quality. Warranties are designed well will produce some gain consumer loyalty, which in turn will make repeat purchases. It will also create the news by word of mouth (word by mouth) are positive on the new consumer.
4.     Complain efficient holding. Handling consumer complaints offers the opportunity to change consumer dissatisfaction is satisfied quickly on industrial products.

The ways of working or culture to be built is based on the impulse towards achieving quality results and service excellence, constantly producing new ideas, discipline, academic and professional, teamwork and networking there. A brilliant work will not work carelessly. Work and daily duties will not be considered as a burden or as a boring routine. Work to be done will be done in earnest, not just let off lightly. His performance will always be high. If we encounter any difficulties when carrying out their duties, things to do is try to find a way to overcome or solve the problem and not easy to turn hearts and admit defeat before the finish.
YAB Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad (former Prime Minister) has pointed out that:
"Quality is an excellent condition but it is not limited to one level only. When we achieve quality, there's more better quality that must be pursued. "
Tan Sri Ahmad Sarji bin Abdul Hamid (1995) (former Secretary of State):
"The race for quality improvement is actually two races, .one to forward, and always in front of another."
To achieve this level of excellence, an employee must have discipline. Those who have the self-discipline can work well in all conditions. Truly excellent work culture course is required by the teachings of Islam in order to enhance economic development and character of the people.